As the Department of Homeland Security continues to phase in the requirements of the REAL ID Act, some domestic airline travelers may be prohibited from using their state-issued driver’s license or ID card in order to board their flight.
After January 22, 2018, state-issued driver’s licenses and IDs may be used for domestic airline travel only if they were issued by a state which is in compliance with the REAL ID Act or has been granted an extension by the Secretary of Homeland Security. Currently, all 50 US states, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands are either in compliance with the REAL ID Act or have been granted an extension by the Secretary of Homeland Security. The only US nationals impacted by the January 22, 2018 date are individuals who possess driver’s licenses or IDs issued by American Samoa or the Northern Mariana Islands. (more…)
Many international travelers express surprise when, after arriving at LAX, JFK or other US airports or land borders, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officer directs them to hand over their smartphone, laptop or related electronics device for a search. As disconcerting and invasive as it may be to have a uniformed total stranger work his or her way through one’s e-mails, photos and hard drive, one should be aware that it is generally within the authority of immigration and customs officials to conduct such searches. Just as one’s person and luggage is subject to search upon arrival to the US, so are one’s electronic devices. International travelers should be forewarned that these types of searches may become more commonplace than they already are. CBP reports that in 2017, it conducted more than 30,000 electronics device searches at airports and land borders, almost double the amount of searches it conducted in 2016. Now with a fresh policy in place, it is safe to expect this upward trend to continue. (more…)
California Governor Jerry Brown has signed the Immigrant Worker Protection Act (AB 450), which restricts public and private employers in California from admitting immigration inspectors to the workplace without a judicial warrant. It also requires employers to notify their employees before and after certain immigration inspections take place. The new law, which adds Sections 7285.1, 7285.2, and 7285.3 to the California Government Code, and Sections 90.2 and 1019.2 to the California Labor Code, will take effect on January 1, 2018.
In conflict with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) plans to increase enforcement actions under the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), which includes criminal and civil penalties for employers who knowingly employ unauthorized workers; the new California law seeks to protect foreign workers from unfair immigration-related practices, potentially causing problems for employers who must comply with federal and state laws. (more…)
In the September 18, 2017 Federal Register notice (see 82 FR 43556) , U.S. Citizenship and Immigration made clear it will now routinely require those applying to enter the U.S. to provide social media handles. As such, the obvious starting point for these tips must be a reminder that Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) officers may require arriving travelers to provide the unlock code to their electronic devices and user names/passwords to gain access to programs, including social media accounts, so make sure all your programs are closed when you cross the border! The contents on your devices can be examined, and that is true whether or not you are a U.S. citizen, and regardless of your profession. If you are selected for such an inspection, you can expect this two page summary may be handed to you.
The national security concerns of protecting the homeland allow CBP officers to inspect passengers and their belongings without meeting the Fourth Amendment protections against unreasonable search and seizure. A CBP officer is not required to articulate why he or she directs you to secondary or why you or a particular device is of interest. (more…)
The Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 Diversity Lottery registration opens on October 3, 2017 and will remain open until November 7, 2018.
WHAT IS IT?
The Diversity Lottery makes available 50,000 immigrant visas (green cards) through random selection. The immigrant visas made available are for individuals from countries with historically low immigration rates. According to the State Department, the diversity visas (DVs) are “distributed among six geographic regions and no single country may receive more than seven percent of the available DVs in any one year.”
WHO IS ELIGIBLE?
Applicants from the eligible countries must submit an application during the entry period and must have: (more…)
Workplace immigration law has been the focal point of increased anxiety and uncertainty because of various changes proposed by Executive Order. Discussions have heated up considerably in the offices of human resources professionals and personnel managers, in the break room, around the water cooler, as well as in the news media and on social media. Because the changes have not come in the form of formal regulatory changes through legislation, which require a prescribed notice and comment period (though those may soon be on the way), changes in enforcement priorities and how existing laws are interpreted create an unclear path about who will be impacted and when the new Executive Order priorities will be instituted.
What are these new priorities? At present they are best explained in Executive Order 13788. (more…)
U.S. Customs and Border Protection Officers at ports of entry to the U.S. routinely question returning lawful permanent residents (“green card” holders) about the length of time spent outside the U.S.A. and the nature of their activities abroad. Generally, an absence from the U.S.A. of six months or longer will result in further inquires and requests for documentation to establish the individual’s intent to retain lawful permanent residence status.
A U.S. “green card” allows the holder to reside in the U.S. as an immigrant as long as the holder’s status does not change. However, that status may be lost if the “green card” holder is deemed to have abandoned his or her U.S. residence or if the individual lacks the requisite ties to the U.S. while living abroad.
The question of whether a “green card” holder has retained his or her status in the U.S. arises when the individual departs from the U.S. for lengthy periods of time usually exceeding one year. The determination of retention of U.S. residence depends upon the circumstances surrounding the individual’s departure and his or her ties to the U.S. Among other factors considered in evaluating retention of U.S. residence are the following: (more…)
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) announced that as of Monday, April 3, 2017, it will not accept Premium Processing requests for H-1B visa petitions for a temporary period expected to last up to six (6) months. This applies to all H-1B visa petitions, including extensions, amendments, cap-exempt and new employment petitions, such as those to be submitted in the FY18 Bachelor’s and Master’s Caps. USCIS has indicated that the suspension is required to eliminate the backlog on long-pending H-1B visa petitions. Starting on April 3, 2017, USCIS will reject any H-1B visa petition that is filed with a Form I-907 and one (1) combined check for the I-129 filing fees and the I-907 filing fee. (more…)
On January 27, 2017, President Trump signed an Executive Order that provided the following:
Suspends nonimmigrants (persons coming temporarily to the United States) from designated countries from entry to the United States for a period of up to ninety (90) days from the date of the order (January 27, 2017). At this time, the designated countries are Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. Additional countries may be added. This prohibition does not apply to foreign nationals traveling on diplomatic visas, NATO visas, and United Nations visas. It is unclear if the Executive Order applies only to (1) individuals who hold passports from the designated countries, or if it also applies to (2) foreign nationals who were born in the designated countries, but who are citizens of other, non-designated countries or who are dual nationals, or (3) whose parents were born or hold citizenship from the designated countries. However, according to the Wall Street Journal, the State Department will announce that dual nationals are subject to the ban. For example, a dual national of Iraq and the United Kingdom would be denied entry, even if the dual national travels on a UK passport.
This post is for the many French people who ask me on a regular basis about the U.S. visas that are available to them.
Several visa categories exist. This post will focus on the most commonly used in the case of French nationals: the E2 (for investors); the L1 (intracompany transfer); and the O1 (extraordinary ability). The H1B is also widely used but it will be the subject of a stand-alone post in the not too distant future.
The E-2 Visa: The E-2 visa is available to foreign nationals who are looking to invest a substantial sum of money into a business in the United States – either a new business or the purchase of an existing U.S. business. Although the law does not mention a minimum amount, in our experience, the minimum investment generally ranges between $120,000 and $150,000, but it can be more or less depending on the nature of the business. Additionally, that money must be spent on the business, and not merely sit dormant in a U.S. bank account. If the investment is made into an existing business then it would need to be substantial in comparison to the current value of the business. The visa can be approved for up to 5 years at a time, and extended in 5 year increments, so long as the business remains operational. There is no limitation on the number of times it can be extended. Note that primary focus of the E-2 is the creation of U.S. jobs, so it is usually critical that the applicant provide proof of U.S. jobs creation or a business plan that shows the creation of U.S. jobs in the near future.
The L-1A “New Office” Visa: The L-1A visa is an “intracompany transferee” visa that is available to foreign nationals who work in managerial or executive occupations, and are transferring from a foreign company to a U.S. parent, branch, or subsidiary. The visa includes newly formed U.S. offices and businesses, provided that the newly formed U.S. office is established as a subsidiary, affiliate, or parent of a foreign company, and that the foreign company will continue operations abroad. This visa is attractive when the foreign investment into the U.S. business is made through a foreign company, as opposed to a foreign individual investor, as it may allow multiple employees from the foreign company to be transferred to the U.S. office. The L-1A visa requires proof that the foreign national transferee has worked for at least one full year for the company abroad before entering the U.S., and that the U.S. office has sufficient financial or operational resources to conduct business in the U.S. The foreign business must also remain operational after the individual transferee begins work in the United States. An individual is allowed seven (7) years maximum stay on an L-1A, although there are exceptions for individuals who use the visa infrequently and only occasionally.
The O-1 Visa: The O-1 visa is reserved for individuals of “Extraordinary Ability” in the arts, sciences, and business. To obtain an O-1 visa, a U.S. company must petition for the individual to come to the United States to perform a service that is related to his or her area of extraordinary ability. We also need to establish that the individual is an individual of extraordinary ability in his or her field. The visa can be approved for up to three (3) years at a time, and extended in increments of up to three (3) years. There is no limitation on the number of times it can be extended, but documenting ongoing success and industry contributions with each extension is crucial.